Electromagnetic Spectrum

= entire range of light that exists

The shorter the wavelengths the more harmful they are due to their high frequencies.

 

REFRACTION

re·frac·tion

/rəˈfrakSH(ə)n/

 = the fact or phenomenon of light, radio waves, etc., being deflected in passing obliquely through the interface between one medium and another or through a medium of varying density

 
 

SNELL'S LAW

the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.

 

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

a phenomenon that occurs when light travels from a more optically dense medium (or a medium with higher refractive index) to a less optically dense one (lower index), such as glass to air or water to air

Concave mirror

has a reflecting surface that bulges inward (away from the incident light), reflect light inward to one focal point, used to focus light; show different image types depending on the distance between the object and the mirror

convex mirror

= a curved mirror in which the reflective surface bulges toward the light source, reflecting light outwards, therefore they are not used to focus light

FLAT MIRROR

is a mirror with a flat (planar) reflective surface; for light rays striking a plane mirror, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence

converging lens

=  (or convex lens) is curved on both sides; the light rays coming out of it come together at a point – they converge

diverging lens

= double concave lens that always produces a virtual image

FLAT LENS

= a "perfect" lens that doesn't exhibit chromatic aberration

SUPER LENS

uses metamaterials to go beyond the diffraction limit (a feature of conventional lenses and microscopes that limits the fineness of their resolution)

HYPER LENS

= can view ultraviolet (1200-1400 THz) light; created using alternating layers of boron nitride and graphene

 

Notes coming soon.